1) What are the mechanisms behind persistence of HIV in the mucosa (lung and gut) in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated HIV-infected adults?
2) What is the impact of HIV infection on mucosal immunity that leads to increased susceptibility to Lower Respiratory Tract Infections (LRTIs)?
3) What are the factors that promote persistence of pneumococcal carriage in ART-treated HIV-infected adults?
4) What are the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of immunological memory and cytotoxic potential in CD8+ T cells?
5) Is sub-optimal maternal nutritional status during pregnancy associated with impaired neonatal immunity and an increased likelihood of respiratory illness in Malawian children?